NANOG Immunohistochemical Expression in Tumors
Myra Wilkerson, Fan Lin, Jianhui Shi. Geisinger Medical Center, Danville, PA
Background: The NANOG gene is located on human chromosome 12p13. The NANOG protein product is a homeobox DNA binding transcription factor that prevents differentiation of embryonic stem cells. Down regulation of the NANOG gene expression allows cell differentiation to occur. NANOG protein expression has been described in testicular intratubular germ cell neoplasia (ITGCN), classic seminoma, and embryonal carcinoma, but is not expressed in yolk sac tumors or teratomas. Published data on NANOG expression in other tumors is limited. In this study, we investigated the expression of NANOG protein in a large series of tumors from various organs using a single immunostaining system (Dako).
Design: Immunohistochemical evaluation of NANOG protein expression [Novus Biologicals, Nanog antibody (5A10)(NBP1-04320)] was performed on 998 tumors from various organs using tissue microarray sections. The staining intensity was graded as weak or strong. The distribution was recorded as negative (<5% of tumor cells stained), 1+ (5-25%), 2+ (26-50%), 3+ (51-75%), or 4+ (>75%).
Results: The positive staining results (%) and the total number of cases for each entity (N) are summarized in Table 1. Fifty-four of 998 cases demonstrated positive nuclear staining for NANOG protein and these cases consisted of testicular ITGCN, embryonal carcinoma, and classic seminoma.
|Tumor||N||# Positive||% Positive|
|Testicular classic seminoma||23||22||95.7|
|Testicular embryonal CA||16||15||93.8|
|Testicular yolk sac tumor||6|
|Testicular spermatocytic seminoma||1|
|Testicular Leydig cell tumor||3|
|Urothelial CA primary to bladder||31|
|Pulmonary neuroendocrine CA||62|
|Pulmonary squamous cell CA||45|
|Pancreatic ductal ADC||46|
|Pancreatic endocrine CA||14|
|Clear cell renal cell CA||30|
|Papillary renal cell CA||16|
|Infiltrating duct CA of breast||123|
|Infiltrating lobular CA of breast||48|
|Papillary CA of thyroid||41|
|Follicular CA of thyroid||31|
|Ovarian serous ADC||15|