Plasmodium Vivax Malaria: A Native American Disease
MJ Allison, S Guillen, E Gerszten. MCV Campus-VCU, Richmond, VA; Instituto Mallqui, El Algarrobal, Moquegua, Peru
Background: Malaria is probably one of the most ancient human diseases. It is currently on the increase with half a billion cases in 2007/in 106 different countries. Whereas Pl. falciparum was a recent import carried by imported African slaves, Pl. vivax may well be an American resident for thousands of years.
Design: This current study was the examination of 155 spleens or livers from peruvian mummies belonging to seven cultural groups dating from 3000 to 600 years before present (B.P.) They were studied using U.S.Biological antibodies Pl.vivax 75/76 and Pl.falciparum 70/71 with ELISA in situ hybridization using a Biogenex Alkaline Phosphatase conjugated Streptaviden Reagent System. Histological sections were cut and stained with H&E for malaria pigment.
Results: Table 1 shows the results:
Conclusions: Studies by Sulzier et al in 1975 on a group of isolated Campa Indian showed a high rate of malaria (63%-85%) with an etiology of only Pl.malariae and Pl. vivax . no Pl. falciparum was found. These two species are said to have evolved from a primate and cross react with some monkey malaria species. Oliveira, 1995, found 17 species of South American monkeys positive for malaria with an infection rate 2.1% - 59%. the red howler monkey was among the highest. Some monkey malaria can be contracted by humans, Howler monkey mummies are found in human cemeteries and were probably pets when the mother was hunted and killed locally in coastal valleys for food. One had his food dish with him. As coastal valley forests were cut for agriculture and coastal monkeys were all killed for food the only monkeys ar now mainly in the Amazon. Currently this practice is in effect in Columbia. Human malaria was a common disease in Pre Columbian Peru and may have had its origen in local monkey malaria.
Monday, March 9, 2009 1:00 PM
Poster Session II # 193, Monday Afternoon