[1504.30] Health Burden from Hazardous Waste Sites in India, Indonesia, and the Philippines in 2010
Kevin M. Chatham-Stephens, Jack Caravanos, Bret Ericson, Philip J. Landrigan, Richard Fuller. Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY; School of Public Health at Hunter College, City University of New York, New York, NY; Blacksmith Institute, New York, NY.
BACKGROUND: Prior calculations of the burden of disease from toxic exposures have not included estimates of the burden from hazardous waste sites due to the absence of exposure data. Quantification of the burden of disease associated with these sites is essential for public health planning and for targeting remediation efforts.
OBJECTIVE: To develop a Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY)-based estimate of the disease burden attributable to hazardous waste sites in three low and middle income countries - India, Indonesia, and the Philippines.
DESIGN/METHODS: Sites were identified through Blacksmith Institute's Toxic Sites Identification Program, a global effort to identify waste sites in low and middle income countries. Toxic chemicals were sampled in environmental media at each site and the population at risk of exposure was estimated. Utilizing published dose-response relationships, we estimated disease incidence from these toxic exposures. By combining incidence estimates with population data, we then calculated the DALYs attributable to toxic exposures at each site.
RESULTS: A total of 8,629,750 individuals are at risk of exposure to industrial pollutants at 373 hazardous waste sites in India, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Children and women of childbearing age constitute 65.3% of the total exposed population. In 2010 these exposures resulted in 960,456 DALYs, approximately 0.26% of the total DALYs in these countries. The largest contributor was lead, with lead-induced mild mental retardation and cardiovascular disease accounting for over half of the total DALYs. The disease burden from hazardous waste sites in these three countries ranks just below that attributable to hypertensive heart disease (1,397,000 DALYs) and above the disease burden from malaria (725,000 DALYs), hepatitis B (559,000 DALYs), and hepatitis C (223,000 DALYs).
CONCLUSIONS: Hazardous waste sites are responsible for a significant burden of disease in low and middle income countries. Because of their behavior patterns and developmental sensitivity, children and women of childbearing age are uniquely vulnerable to these toxic exposures. Our findings almost certainly underestimate the full magnitude of the disease burden, because many sites in these countries have not yet been identified or characterized. Hazardous waste sites are a major, and heretofore under-recognized, global health problem.
First Author is a Fellow in Training
Session: Poster Session: Epidemiology (1:00 PM - 4:00 PM)
Date/Time: Saturday, May 4, 2013 - 1:00 PM
Room: Hall D/E - Walter E. Washington Convention Center
Course Code: 1504